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What is a Traumatic Brain Injury?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury is a broader category that may involve damage to other structures such as the scalp and skull. TBI can result in physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral symptoms, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death.

Causes include falls, vehicle collisions, and violence. Brain trauma occurs as a consequence of a sudden acceleration or deceleration within the cranium or by a complex combination of both movement and sudden impact. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, a variety of events following the injury may result in further injury. These processes include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull. Some of the imaging techniques used for diagnosis include computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs).

Prevention measures include use of seat belts and helmets, not drinking and driving, fall prevention efforts in older adults, and safety measures for children.[5] Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications, emergency surgery or surgery years later. Physical therapy, speech therapy, recreation therapy, occupational therapy and vision therapy may be employed for rehabilitation. Counseling, supported employment, and community support services may also be useful.

TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults.[6] Males sustain traumatic brain injuries more frequently than do females. The 20th century saw developments in diagnosis and treatment that decreased death rates and improved outcomes.

Cited texts source :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traumatic_brain_injury

Boake C, Diller L (2005). “History of rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury”. In High WM, Sander AM, Struchen MA, Hart KA (eds.). Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517355-0.

Granacher RA (2007). Traumatic Brain Injury: Methods for Clinical & Forensic Neuropsychiatric Assessment, Second Edition. Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 978-0-8493-8138-6.

LaPlaca MC, Simon CM, Prado GR, Cullen DR (2007). “CNS injury biomechanics and experimental models”. In Weber JT (ed.). Neurotrauma: New Insights Into Pathology and Treatment. Amsterdam: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-444-53017-2.

Marion DW (1999). “Introduction”. In Marion DW (ed.). Traumatic Brain Injury. Stuttgart: Thieme. ISBN 978-0-86577-727-9.

The original version of this article contained text from the NINDS public domain pages on TBI

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